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billion - in 2010 and 2011. Order backlog
information and exact financial figures are not
made public on secrecy grounds.
General Director Vladislav Menshikov said
in 2006 that the foreign orders accounted
for 70% of Almaz-Antey's income (and that
their backlog was about US $6 billion),
Russian defense orders around 20%, and civil
production 10%. Since then the local orders
have increased considerably and by some
estimates outgrew export. Almaz-Antey's
annual report for 2011 says the state defense
order was 4.6 times more than in 2010.
Almaz-Antey's systems are in service with
55 countries round the world. Half of them
have ongoing contractual relations with the
OEM. The annual report for 2011 mentions
ongoing construction of new plants in Nizhny
Novgorod and Kirov for the production of
new missile systems now in development
and testing (our guess is that, at least partly, the
decision to expand manufacturing capacity is to
meet the big demand for the S400 system).
Almaz-Antey is not completely focused on air
defense. It also produces airborne and warship
radars as well as cruise missiles - including the
Club system developed by the concern's member
company Novator. On the other hand, some air
defense systems are produced by companies
outside of the Almaz-Antey corporate structure.
Kolomna-based KBP is responsible for the Pantsyr,
Tunguska and Igla short range antiaircraft systems;
and the Nudelman's design house is a specialist
in short-range antiaircraft missiles for the Pantsyr,
Tunguska, Tor, Strela 10M3 and Sosna systems.
There are two families of long range SAM available
today: the S300P/S400 developed by Almaz and
the S300V by NIEMI.
The S300P employs 5V55 command link
missiles; its mobile variant the S300PS became
operational in 1983. Among innovations there
were microchip-based multiprocessor computing
and a high level of automation - stretching from
detection to firing and kill probability analysis. The
multifunctional engagement radar has a passive
electronically scanned phased array (PESA).
Missiles run on solid-fuel instead of liquid used on
previous generation systems and they are stored
in sealed canisters. Vertical launch, cold start
technology gives improved performance against
aerodynamic targets as well as short-range ballistic
The Ukrainian armed services recently exhibited
a S300PS transporter elector launcher (TEL) and
19Zh6 search and acquisition radar at the AviaSwit
expo with the following vital data: maximum firing
range and altitude 75km and 27km respectively,
target speed up to 1200m/sec in the forward and
500m/s in the rear hemisphere.
Short of hard currency at the time, in 1993 the
Kremlin cleared the S300PMU-1 for export. It
featured two then-new PESA radars: the 64N6E
for surveillance and the 30N6E1. It uses a 48N6E
missile with semi-active radar head and a range
of 150km. The system employs inertial guidance
in mid-course with commands from the 30N6E1,
shifting to track-via-missile nearer the target.
Vietnam acquired two S300PMU-1 battalions in
2003-2005. Cyprus ordered the system in 1997
together with Osa-AKMs and Thor-M1s. This
outraged Turkey, and these systems ended up
fielded on the island of Crete belonging to Greece.
China bought 12 S300PMU-1 battalions under a
first contract in 1994 and a follow-on order in 2001.
Three years later Beijing purchased eight battalions
of the S-300PMU-2 Favorite - effectively becoming
launch customer for this much improved system.
Algeria bought eight battalions in 2006. The most
recent Favorite shipments have been to Azerbaijan.
The Favorite completed acceptance trials in
2007. It is a deep modernization of the S300PMU-1
using some technologies developed for the next-
generation S400. Typically, a Favorite battalion
includes a 54K6E2 control post, 64N6E2
surveillance radar, up to six combat units
comprising a 30N6E2 engagement radar
and up to 12 5P85SE2/TE2 TELs each
loaded with four 48N6E2 missile containers.
Operators' workplaces are furnished with
color LCDs instead of cathode ray tubes. The
48N6E2 firing range is 200km. The Favorite
is pictured as anti-ballistic missile system able
to intercept tactical rockets with range up
to 1,000km. Survivability is higher thanks to
interaction with the 96L6E early warning and
acquisition radar, which became operational
in 2005. The S300PMU-2 is deeply
integrated with Russia's PVO (air defence
organization) command and control structure
and can closely interact with other modern
In late 2008 China subjected the Favorite
to customer acceptance trials to check for
the system's advertized performance and the
suitability of the 48N6E2's algorithms for homing
onto various types of targets. Also checked was
interoperability with the 96L6E surveillance radar.
During testing two missiles were launched against
a ballistic target approaching at speed of 1000m/
sec. Hits were scored at distances of 34km and
30.7km. Firing at a compact tactical ballistic missile
culminated in two hits. A high-flying drone was
destroyed at a distance of 185km and a low-flying
one at 4.6km. Missiles were launched into rear
hemisphere of a subsonic aerodynamic target for a
kill at a distance of 68km.
The S400 Triumph is part of a fourth generation
of Almaz SAMs. A first regiment re-equipped with
the Triumph in 2006 and the system passed state
acceptance trials in April 2007. At that time RusAF
commander Gen. Mikhailov said he did not see a
need to "reequip all of the 35 SAM regiments" and
would rather proceed with rearmament at a rate
of one-two regiments a year. "There is no need
to accelerate S400 procurements, since many
regiments have recently had upgrades done on their
(existing) systems rendering them far more capable",
The S400 has been designed to engage such
difficult aerodynamic targets as stealth aircraft,
PGMs, UAVs and so on. Typically, one set of the
system includes a 91N6E surveillance radar, up to
six 98Zh6E units each of 92N6E engagement radar
and up to 12 launchers. Compared to respective
Favorite elements, the 91N6E and 92N6E are of
Favorite TEL and engagement radar
Credit: V Karnazov
There are two families of long range SAM available today: the S300P/
S400 developed by Almaz and the S300V by NIEMI.
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