Home' Defence Review Asia : DRA July-August 2017 Contents DefenceReviewAsia | JULY/AUG 2017 33
course guidance of active/semi-active anti-air missiles
and advanced beam forming techniques for ECCM.
Mr Dan explained to DRA:
"It allows defensive systems like the Barak 1 and
Barak 8 that are installed on ships to guide the
interceptor in the initial phase of its trajectory"
The Canadian experts that came to Israel before
the cooperation agreement between the two
companies was signed were able to evaluate a
derivative of the system that is in use on Israeli
navy Saar 4.5 missile ships.
In October 2012, ELTA was selected to
supply the Israeli Navy with the ELM-2258
ALPHA (Advanced Lightweight Phased Array
Radar) radar systems for the Saar 4.5s.
According to Amir Dan, the radar is already
installed on one of the SAAR 4.5 missile boats
and is currently undergoing a set of operational
tests. The ELM-2258 uses a rotating antenna.
ALPHA is a key component of the ship's
weapon system and is able to perform a variety
of missions simultaneously, such as multiple
target tracking and identification and defense
munitions guidance. It provides 360-degree
defence against a wide variety of airborne
threats and munitions. The ALPHA radar
replaced older systems such as the Automatic
Missile Detection Radar (AMDR) and the
Dagon Surface Search radar.
The ALPHA radar is a derivative of the Multi-
Function Surveillance and Threat Alert Radar
(MF-STAR), which is being produced under
contract with the Israel Navy as well as for
According to ELTA the system has a 3D long-
range air surveillance and tracking capability
and 3D medium range automatic threat alert.
The ELTA experts add that the system
provides fast reliable threat alert response time
within the same scan and very high tracking update
rate and accuracy for priority targets. In a multi
threat scenario that is very common these days, this
capability is essential.
They also point to the low life cycle cost (LCC)
and the lightweight antenna, which is essential on
relatively small ships.
Countries want to control activities not only in
their territorial waters but also more broadly in their
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), where in many
cases gas and oil reservoirs are located.
A few years ago, ELTA won a contract to supply
Brazil with a unique over the horizon radar (OTH).
The ELTA's ELM-2270 OTH is a long range High
Frequency (HF) band coastal surveillance radar
designed to detect sea surface targets and low
flying aircraft far beyond the local horizon. The radar
monitors activity within the nation's EEZ, up to
200Nm from the seashore by employing HF surface
wave propagation. The system transmits a wide-
angle beam, simultaneously covering 120 degrees
in azimuth, while the receiving section comprises
one or more arrays of vertical antennas that provide
instantaneous coverage of the entire sector.
Employing phased array technology and unique
interference cancellation techniques, the radar
provides reliable, persistent coverage of the broad
maritime area at all times - regardless of atmospheric
conditions or sea state. The radar applications range
from EEZ surveillance, coastal Over-The-Horizon
Situation Awareness Picture (ASP) generation, and
low altitude aircraft detection.
According to Amir Dan, the OTH radar has been
installed and currently is being tested:
"One of the more impressive features of this big,
very advanced system is its capability to deal with
clutter coming from the ionosphere".
The OTH project in Brazil was undertaken in
cooperation with local company IACIT. The OTH
Model 0100 was built on Brazil's Cassino Beach,
Rio Grande do Sul. It operates in the HF frequency
range and employs irradiation vertically polarized
superficial waves on the sea surface. The propagation
of the surface waves is not limited by the optical line
This allows the detection of ships at a range of
up to 200nm, meaning an overall extension of EEZ
coverage becomes possible. The OTH 0100
implements the concept of the spotlight
radar, with its angular transmission beam
providing simultaneous coverage of 120°
in azimuth (side beamwidth). The receiving
system makes use of a circular array of
vertical antennas thus providing simultaneous
coverage of the whole sector with multiple
azimuth beams, digitally formed in the signal
processor. The digital array architecture,
together with sophisticated software and
state of the art for digital beam forming
(DBF) processing, allows the suppression of
different types of interference occurring in the
HF band, such as ionospheric noise.
But not every country wants a shore-based
sensor for EEZ protection. In this case the
maritime radars are put on aerial platforms.
Until recently the Israeli Air Force (IAF) used
old business aircraft made by IAI that were
converted to a variant known as Sea Scan to
monitor the Mediterranean off the Israeli shore.
However, last year the IAF officially phased
out its Sea Scan 1124 maritime patrol aircraft
perhaps not surprising as they had been in
use since 1978.
Maritime surveillance missions over the
Mediterranean are now performed by the
IAI Heron 1 UAV. The Heron-1 is equipped
with a very advanced multi sensor payload
built around the ELTA ELM 2022 Lightweight
Airborne Maritime Surveillance radar. According
to IAI, this radar can track hundreds of targets
simultaneously from ranges of 200 miles and the
optical payload is then used to zoom in on the one
that looks like a threat.
The company says that while carrying the radar
and the electro optical payload the Heron-1 has 20
hours of endurance.
Only recently IAI was selected to supply its
MS-STAR radar as a part of a huge deal to equip
the Indian navy's new aircraft carrier with the long
range version of its BARAK-8 missile that will
protect the vessel against sea and air threats.
So maritime radars for defence missions are in
big demand on a variety of platforms and Israeli
combat proven technology opens the door for more
Illustration of an ELM-2022ES Active Electronically
Scanned Array (AESA) Radar. Credit: ELTA
22/06/2017 1:15 PM
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